About Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan

Карта Кыргызстана- Киргизии

Overview

In the center of the continent in azitskogo powerful mountain range of Tien Shan (translated from Chinese "Celestial Mountains") is a beautiful country.

Its territory has all the landscapes of the world: the harsh forbidding peaks, vast steppes, alpine meadows of the flavor of herbs are combined with the crystal clear mountain air dizziness, rapid mountain rivers, mountain lakes - a real jewel in the snowy peaks of the frame, as well as the biggest on our planet walnut forests.

This Kyrgyzstan!

Official name - the Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan Respublikasy, Kyrgyz Republic). Area 199.9 km 2, population 5,012,000 people. (2002). Official language - Kyrgyz, Russian language given official status. Capital - Bishkek (0.8 million inhabitants, 2002). Public holiday - the Day of State Independence of August 31 (since 1991). Currency - catfish.

Member of more than 120 international organizations, including United Nations (since 1992) and a number of its specialized agencies, the World Bank (1992), MAP (1992), IFC (1992), IMF (1992), OSCE (since 1992), the OIC (1992), the Asian Development Bank (1994), the Islamic Development Bank (since 1993), EBRD (1992), CIS (1991), CAS (1994), EEC (2000), SCO (s1996), etc.

Geography

Озеро Иссык Куль Кыргызстан Kyrgyzstan is situated between 75 ° E, 4 D North. Has no outlet to the sea. Bordered on the north by Kazakhstan (1113 km), on the west by Uzbekistan (1374 km) to the south-west and Tajikistan (972 km) to the south-east to China (1049 km).

Kyrgyzstan is located within the two mountain ranges - the Tien Shan (most north-eastern part) and Pamir-Alai (South-West) separated by high mountain valleys and hollows: Talas and Chui in the north, in the south of the Alai, the Ferghana in the south- West, Issyk-Kul in the east.

The average height above sea level is 2750 m, approx. Third area is at an altitude of 400 to 3,000 meters the highest point - the peak (7439 m) in the mountains of Tien Shan, the lowest - 394 m (south-west).

The longest river (length in the country, miles): Naryn (535), Chu (221), Kyzyl-Suu (210), Talas (210), Chatkal (205) and Sarah-Jazz (198). In late 1932 the lake, the largest - Issyk-Kul Lake (6.2 km 2, depth up to 668 m), Son-Kul (0.3 km 2, depth up to 22 m), Chater-Kul (0.2 km2, depth up to 20.4 m).

Soils are mostly sierozem in the mountains - brown and mountain chernozems. The vegetation of the desert and semi-desert, in the mountains - forests, meadows and mountain steppe.

Among animals there are rare species: Tien Shan bear, snow leopard, red wolf.

Natural resources: significant reserves of gold, rare metals, iron ore (10 billion tons), mercury, antimony, tin, lead, zinc, coal (2.3 billion balance reserves t) hydropower resources (potential reserves of 162.7 billion kilowatt -h), oil (10 million tons), natural gas, building materials, etc.

The climate is continental. The average temperature in January is -2,2 ° C to -29, HS, on July 4, HS to +26,8 ° C.

Population

The birth rate of 19.8%, infant mortality 22.6 people. per 1000 live births. Life expectancy 68.7 years, including male - 65 years, women - 72.6 years (2001). Age structure: 0-14 years - 33.6%, 15-29 years - 28.3%, 30-55 years - 28.6%, 56-69 years 5.9%, 70 years and older - 3 6%. The total population of men 49.4%, women 50.6%.

97% of the population literate. For every 1,000 people. aged 15 years and older have higher education 105 people., average - 806 people.

According to the 1999 census, 64.8% of the population were Kyrgyz, 13.8% - Uzbeks, 12.5% ​​- Russian, by 1.1% Ukrainians and Dungan, 0.4% - the Germans, 2.5% - other nationalities (Census 1989, Kyrgyzstan is 52.3%, Russian - 21.5% -12.9% Uzbeks, Ukrainians - 2.5%, Germans - 2.4%, Tajiks and Kazakhs by 0.9%, other Turkic-speaking citizens - 1.8% Other - 4.8%).

The main languages ​​- Kyrgyz and Russian.

Religion: Sunni Islam, Orthodoxy.

Story

Горы Кыргызстана Kyrgyz ethnicity was known in Central Asia as early as the 1st century BC To 2.5 cc. BC nomads who lived in the north of Kyrgyzstan today was a strong tribal alliances, the southern regions the local population in 2. BC-4. BC included in the state parkan in the Kushan Empire. 6-12 cc. Kyrgyzstan was part of the Western Turkic Khaganate, state Turkes, Karluk, Karakhanids. In the 13-1st floor. 16. under the power of the Mongols, Oirat inhibit the development of settled agriculture, urban growth. Kyrgyz, but managed to preserve their ethnic autonomy. In the 2 nd floor. 15. Kyrgyz nation basically taken shape. In one of the first third of the 19th century. Kyrgyzstan was conquered Kokand khans, faced with serious resistance of the population. By 1863 the northern Kyrgyzstan voluntarily joined the Russian Empire, the southern regions were annexed after the fall of the Kokand Khanate in 1876.

Being a part of the Russian Empire, to accelerate the development of the productive forces, at the same time led to an increase of colonial oppression, with rising protests of the people. The most serious was the Central Asian uprising in 1916 was brutally suppressed by the authorities.

In November 1917 and June 1918 in Kyrgyzstan, Soviet power was established in 1921-22 held land and water reform. October 14, 1924 was the Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Region within the RSFSR (from May 25, 1925 Kyrgyz), converted from February 1, 1926 at the Kyrgyz autonomous republic within the Russian Federation. On December 5, 1936 - Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic within the USSR.

In October 1990, the Supreme Council of Kyrgyzstan decided to rename the Kirghiz SSR in the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, December 15, 1990 adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, and August 31, 1991 - Declaration of Independence of Kyrgyzstan. May 5, 1993 was approved by the official name of the Kyrgyz Republic adopted its new constitution.

State structure and political system

Kyrgyzstan - a sovereign, unitary and democratic republic built on the basis of a legal secularism. From May 1993 acted Constitution adopted XII session of the Supreme Council of the Republic, as amended in February 1996, October 1998, December 2001. February 18, 2003 the Law on the new edition of the Constitution, according to which many of the provisions have undergone major changes.

Administratively, the respect of Kyrgyzstan is divided into seven regions (Batken, Jalal-Abad, Issyk-Kul, Naryn, Osh, Talas, Chui). Areas include the 39 districts, 21 cities, 29 urban village, 1802 villages. The biggest cities - Bishkek and Osh - the city of republican subordination, Jalal-Abad, Talas, Tokmok, Karakol, Kant, Uzgen.

The principles of governance - the rule of power of the people, represented by a popularly elected head of state - the president, the division of state power into legislative, executive and judicial branches, the responsibility of public authorities to the people and the exercise of their powers in the interests of the people, separation of functions of state and local governments.

The highest legislative body - the parliament (Parliament) exercises legislative power and control functions within their powers. According to the 1993 constitution the parliament consists of two chambers: the Assembly of People's Representatives (45 pers.), Working sessions and is elected on the basis of territorial interests and standing of the Legislative Assembly (60 pers.), Elected on the basis of representation of the total population. Constitutional Law 2003 introduces a unicameral parliament (75 MPs), elected for five years in single-member territorial constituencies (previously there were also elections by party lists) and work sessions. The right to nominate candidates belong to political parties and citizens through self-nomination. Deputies are elected by universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.

The highest executive body - the government, led by Prime Minister and includes in its membership as deputy prime ministers, ministers, chairmen of state committees. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President with the consent of the majority of parliament deputies (in the Constitution of 1993 - with the consent of the people's congresses). The structure of government at the proposal of the Prime Minister determined by the president and approved by the Jogorku Kenesh (the Constitution of 1993 it was the prerogative of the President). The Government in its activities is responsible to the President and accountable to the Jogorku Kenesh within the limits prescribed by the Constitution.

President of the Kyrgyz Republic is the Head of State, the highest official symbol of the unity of the people and the government, the Constitution guarantees the rights and freedoms of man and citizen. The president is elected for a term of 5 years, one and the same person can not be elected more than two consecutive terms. President must be a citizen of the Kyrgyz Republic not younger than 35 and older than 65 years, who knows the state language and has lived in the country for 15 years.

Local government in the ails, towns, cities, communities are within the law and under their responsibility through local councils and other bodies formed under the law. Local governments are responsible for compliance with the state and law enforcement, and to the local community - for their performance. Deputies of local councils are elected for 4 years. Executive power in the administrative units through which local public administration.

According to the Constitution in Kyrgyzstan can form political parties, trade unions and other public associations on the basis of free will and common interests.

Officially registered 27 parties, many of whom do not have a clear program and weak organizational. In the elections to the parliament in 2000, the largest number of votes received Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan, the pro-presidential Democratic Party of Women of Kyrgyzstan, the Union of Democratic Forces, which unites the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan, the party and the party of economic revival Birimdyk.

The Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan (GAC) and the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan (PDAP) are organized left wing. PAC - opposition party, is a political and ideological successor to the disbanded in 1991, the Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan. Without abandoning the basic ideological principles of the Communist Party, the PAC has gone to significant changes in their programs based on contemporary realities (particularly favors a mixed economy with social orientation of reform and state control of vital industries, etc.). Has approx. 25 thousand members. Social Democratic Party represents that part of the ruling elite, which considers it unacceptable for Kyrgyz society liberal model of development, preferring to model, close to Western European democracies. Established in 1993, has more than two thousand members, quite powerful.

The most influential parties of the liberal-democratic parties - "Ata-Meken" ("Fatherland") (in favor of the evolutionary conservation of the positive elements from the old system), the Democratic Movement Party "Kyrgyzstan" (centrist Democratic organization, which in constructive opposition to the government); Republican People's Party of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan's political struggle is characterized not so much by the parties as the confrontation of the northern and southern clans, whose roots go back to ancient times.

3019 registered NGOs and associations. Leading business organizations - The Chamber of Commerce of the Kyrgyz Republic, the Union of Entrepreneurs.

Domestic policy is aimed at the construction of a developed democratic society, the full development of local self-government as the basis of life, the protection of human rights, the international accord.

The basic principles of foreign policy - to ensure and protect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country, the formation of a favorable external environment for economic and democratic reforms.

The armed forces are being built in accordance with the principle of self-defense and defense sufficiency. They consist of the Army, Air Force, Air Defense, the National Guard from September 2002 operates independently Border Service. Size of the armed forces (in conjunction with the Ministry of Interior) approx. 18 thousand people.

Diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation established March 20, 1992.

Economy

Sovereign Kyrgyzstan headed to conduct radical market reform program which has been prepared by experts of the IMF and the World Bank. In 1995-97 was largely overcome the deep crisis in the Kyrgyz economy in 1991 - 94, strengthened the trend of financial stabilization. Since 1998, economic growth began, which, however, is not yet stable. Macroeconomic stabilization has not been achieved.

Economy, including foreign trade, highly liberalized. Completed Sc. small-scale privatization, from 1999-2000 the privatization of strategic sectors - energy, mining and telecommunications. The non-state sector accounts for over 79% of total employment. But an owner has not yet formed. Enter the private ownership of land.

In 2001, Kyrgyzstan's GDP, calculated at the official exchange rate of U.S. $ 1.5 billion (U.S. $ 308 per capita), the purchasing power parity - U.S. $ 13.4 billion (2702 dollars per capita). According to the World Bank Kyrgyzstan is among the countries with low incomes. Kyrgyzstan's share of global GDP - 0.004%.

Investment behavior is unstable, and in 2002 they accounted for only 54% of the 1991 level. Unemployment in the past three years - 3.1%. Slowed growth in the consumer price index which (the previous year) in 2000 was 109.6%, in 2002 - 105.9%.

Involvement in the market economy was accompanied by most of the population agrarization employment and the economy, respectively. For 1991-2001 the share of employment in agriculture increased from 34.5 to 52.9%, industry - fell from 18.1 to 8.2%. Industry's share of GDP fell from 27.5 to 24.2%, in agriculture increased from 35.6 to 37.1%. The service sector makes approx. 35% of GDP, construction - 4%.

Industrial output in 2002 was 38% of the 1991 level. Main industries: non-ferrous metals (including gold), hydro (electricity production in 2002 amounted to 11.9 billion kilowatt-hours), mining (mercury, antimony, rare metals), food processing, textiles and footwear, mechanical engineering (production of equipment for retail and food service, laboratory equipment, insulated magnet wire, light bulbs, AC motors, build color TVs, computers). For 1991-2002 the share of resource industries in the industrial production grew from 9 to 60%, the share of machinery fell from 19 to 6%. The industrial sector is not sufficiently effective, cost-effective less than 50% of companies.

The most important sector of the economy - agriculture. Agricultural production in 2002 by 12% over 1991. More than 55% of the gross output of agriculture - crop production (cereals, sugar beet, cotton, tobacco, potatoes, vegetables), 45% - livestock products. Errors in the implementation of reforms in the 1st floor. 1990s. caused serious damage to the traditional industries - highland sheep, his recovery is slow. 93% of agricultural products produced in the private sector. Much of it is exported.

Located at the intersection of two major transport axes - the North-South and East-West, Kyrgyzstan has the potential to become a major transport hub. Transport infrastructure development (participation in the TRACECA route road reconstruction Andijan-Osh-Kashgar, the planned construction of the railway in China) - an important part of the concept of revival of the Great Silk Road, developed by President A. Akayev.

The main mode of transportation - the automobile. It accounts for 90% of the goods carried by railway transport - 5.8% for pipeline - 4%. The length of roads - 36.7 thousand km, including 27.9 thousand km of paved (1991), the railways - 0.4 thousand km of gas pipelines - 200 km of navigable inland waterways 0 five thousand miles. 50 airports, of which 4 have runways with asphalt. On Lake Issyk-Kul port Balykchy.

Provision of modern communication - more than 500 thousand telephones. Level of connectedness is high: more than 200 thousand Internet users. Across the country is part of the Trans-European fiber-optic communication lines.

Trade turnover with ser. 1990s. steadily growing. In the retail trade accounts for 53% of food and 47% for non-food goods. The share of private sector in retail trade for more than 99%.

In the services sector is dominated by traditional areas. In the total services sector accounts for over 60% for transport, housing and communal services, personal services, 12% - for education. The private sector is more than 70%.

Economic policies aimed at strengthening the system of market reforms, reduce public spending by a significant reduction of the state apparatus, the creation of favorable conditions for the private sector as the basis of an economic breakthrough, promote foreign direct private investment, industrial training projects attractive to investors. The primary goal of social policy - to overcome extreme poverty.

In June 1991, established a two-tier banking system. Provides for the independence of the National Bank of Kyrgyzstan, is issuing center. In 2000 there were 18 domestic commercial banks and 4 foreign, including 2 Russian. Since 1997, the NSC has a policy of stricter requirements for the operation of commercial banks, the size of its share capital, reserves, stimulate lending to the real sector. The refinancing rate fell from 46% in 1995 to 6.8% in 2002.

The non-banking financial sector is underdeveloped. Since 1995, operates the stock exchange. Securities turnover is low because of their lack of attractiveness for investors.

Chronic budget deficit in 2001 was replaced by a surplus (0.3% of GDP in 2002). More than 70% of budget revenues are tax revenues, the expenditure side of St. 1/2 - the cost of the social and cultural needs, more than 30% - in defense and security.

The standard of living of the population is not high. 52.3% of the population was poor, 17.8% - extremely poor, growing income differentials. The average monthly salary in 2002 amounted to U.S. $ 34.5, minimum - approx. 2.13 dollars, the average monthly pension - 10.3 dollars in the cost structure of the population of St.. 90% is for the purchase of consumer goods and services, approx. 6% - payments and contributions, approx. 4% - current savings.

Fighting poverty include measures to enhance the targeting of support, job creation, particularly through the development of small-business, rural microcredit, etc. Program "Araket", "Emgek" are supported by the World Bank and western countries.

Based on the doctrine of the Great Silk Road, Kyrgyzstan seeks to develop foreign economic relations at the same time in three directions - with neighboring countries (including CIS), with Europe and the countries of South-East and East Asia, not in opposition to each other, and with their national interests. Russia is seen as a strategic partner.

Despite the growing dependence of the Kyrgyz economy, foreign trade in 1992-2000 failed to significantly increase its production volume and stabilize prices. Foreign trade turnover in 2002 amounted to 1.0722 billion dollars (485.5 million exports and imports 586.7 million), which is still below the 1998 level. The CIS countries exports of Kyrgyzstan 35%, import - 55% (2002). Major trading partners: Germany, Switzerland (for exports), Russia (15.6% of exports and 19% of imports in 2002), Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and China. In exports were products with a low degree of processing (in the CIS countries - electricity, food, cotton in exports to non-CIS countries 60-70% of gold). More than half of imports are machinery, equipment and other capital goods. Kyrgyzstan was the first CIS country was admitted to the WTO in 1998.

Kyrgyzstan's economy is completely dependent on the inflow of funds from outside, coming mostly in the form of loans and credits the IMF, World Bank, EBRD, ADB and donor countries. Foreign direct investment in 1994-2000 is estimated at 327 million U.S. dollars.

Science and culture

The basis of the system of education in Kyrgyzstan - day secondary schools and higher education institutions. In 2002, there were 2.1 thousand middle schools, including 113 schools, 50 high schools, which far exceeded the level of 1991. The number of higher education institutions over the years has grown from 12 to 46. Along with the state opening of private and public-private schools and high schools, including 12 Kyrgyz-Turkish high schools. Through cross-border financing are Kyrgyz-Russian (Slavic) and the Kyrgyz-Turkish kyrgyszko-Kuwait University, Kyrgyz-American Faculty Nachionalnogo University, as well as the only one in Central Asia - AUCA. In 2002, general education schools had 1,167 thousand., At universities - 199.1 thousand Most schools computerized. According to the number of students per 10 thousand people. (397) Kyrgyzstan ahead of many developed countries. More than 75% of students in public schools are taught for a fee. Improve the efficiency and quality of education promotion program "Personnel of the 21st century."

There is a serious problem that the scientific and technological capacity to adapt to the market. The number of specialists in the field of research, and in 2001 was 2.3 thousand., Ie 33.8% of the 1991 level. More than 2/3 of them - those aged 40 years and older. In the total expenditure on R & D share of basic research for 1991-2001 decreased from 28 to 20%. These studies are conducted mainly in the Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyzstan, including approx. 20 research institutions. ANC is involved in the International Association of Academies of Sciences of the CIS.

Surviving in Kyrgyzstan antiquities - rock drawings in Saymaly Tash, Burana tower, Uzgen mausoleums, etc. - is an integral part of world culture, as well as national epic "Manas", the 1,000 th anniversary was marked in 1995 by the decision of the UN ECOSOC.

In Kyrgyzstan, 15 professional theaters including Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre in Bishkek, 40 museums, the studios, 300 film projectors with paid show, one thousand public libraries, 700 clubs.

World famous were the product of Aitmatov. Musical culture is rooted in creativity Akyns bright representative is the Toktogul Satylganov (1864-1933).

Tourism

As an important branch of the economy turns international tourism. His prospects are linked to the development of the resort area of ​​Lake Issyk-Kul, skiing, mountaineering, the presence of numerous historical monuments, with Biosphere Reserve Sary Chelek. In 2000, Kyrgyzstan has attracted more than 90 thousand foreign tourists. Tourism infrastructure is not sufficiently developed. From 2001 to revive the process of privatization of the resort and tourism.

One of the most beautiful peaks of the Tien Shan is the peak of Khan Tengri. Height of 7000 m, is located on the border of Kyrgyzstan Kazakhstan, China. Khan Tengri is made of marble.

At 20 km. Further south is the highest point of the Tien Shan - Victory Peak - 7439 m

Get to the top of the Khan Tengri possible by helicopter from climbing center in May daadyr Inilchek passing glacier - one of the largest in the world.

Kyrgyzstan has 1,923 lakes, and 94% of them are located in the mountains at an altitude of 3-4 km.

Sary Chelek (translated from Kyrgyz gold cup) - one of the most beautiful lakes in the country, with crystal clear, cold water. Flora in the vicinity of it - Botanical Museum: walnut and fir Seed, apple and pistachio, Tien-Shan fir and mountain flowers - the hormone of nature!

Arslanbob located on the south of the country and has huge walnut forests. Nuts Alexander the Great was so pleased that he ordered his army to plant nut trees in all conquered countries.

In the old days, the Great Silk Road from China to the Mediterranean proligal through Kyrgyzstan.

Ancient travelers stopped to rest in the Tash-Rabat, which is located at an altitude of 3200 meters and is a historical monument.

A very popular resort of Lake Issyk-Kul. These luxurious guesthouses, hotels, recreation centers, and campgrounds are located on the north shore, rest of local people, but also citizens and abroad. Issyk-Kul water transparent, pure and wholesome. Coming to this paradise offers: boat trips, water park, jet skis, water skis, boats and just swimming and sunbathing.

Anthem

KYRGYZ REPUBLIC NATIONAL ANTHEM

In Kyrgyz

The Russian translation

Ak mongylyy asci zoolor, talaalar,
Elibizdin Jany menen Barbara.
Sansyz Kylym Ala Toosun mekendep,
Saktap Kaldi Bizdin Babalar of attack.

Kayyrmasy:
Algalay edges, Kyrgyz e,
Azattyktyn zholuna,
Azattyktyn zholuna,
Lake tagdyryn kolunda.

Bayyrtadan butkon Munoz Elim,
Dostoruna Dajar dilin beruugo.
Bull Yntymak e birdigin shiretip,
Beykuttuktu takes Kyrgyz Zherin.

Kayyrmasy

Atkaryp Eldin Umut, tilegi,
Zhelbiredi erkindiktin zhelegi.
Bizge zhetken ata saltyn, murasyn,
Yyyk saktap urpaktarga Berel.

Kayyrmasy


High mountains, valleys, fields -
Dear, cherished our land.
Our fathers lived among Ala-Too
Always saving their motherland.

Chorus:
Next, Kyrgyz people,
To freedom!
Stand up and flourish
Your fortune!

Immemorial our people for friendship open
Unity and friendship in our hearts.
Land of Kyrgyzstan, home country
Illuminated by the rays of consent.

Chorus

Hopes and dreams came true.
And the flag of freedom over us.
The heritage of our fathers give
To the benefit of people to their

Chorus

Tags: Zh.Sydykov, M.Kuluev
Music: N.Davlesov, K.Moldobasanov

Translated into Russian
K.Akmatov, M.Rudov



Adopted: December 18, 1992

Flag

Флаг Кыргызстана

Description: The national flag of Kyrgyzstan is a red flag, in the center of which is available throughout the solar disc with forty evenly radiating golden. Inside the solar disk is shown in red tunduk Kyrgyz yurt. The width of the flag is three-fifths of its length. The diameter of the radiant disk of three-fifths of the width of the flag. Diameter ratio of the radiant sun and drives - three to five. Tyundyuk diameter is half the diameter of the radiant disk.

One color red flag symbolizes the valor and courage, the golden sun, bathed in its rays, represents peace and wealth, and tunduk - a symbol of his father's house, in a broader sense and the world as a universe. 40 rays, united in a circle, means the union 40 ancient tribes in the United Kyrgyzstan. Tunduk symbolizes the unity of the people living in the country. The red color of the flag was the color of the flag generous Manas.

Authors: E.Aydarbekov, B.Zhaychybekov, S.Iptarov, Zh.Mataev, M.Sydykov

Approved: March 3, 1992 by the Supreme Council of the Republic.

Coat of arms

Герб Кыргызстана

Description: The coat of arms shows a gyrfalcon Manas rasprastertymi with wings, symbolizing the freedom of the country. Also shows the pearl of Kyrgyzstan - Lake Issyk-Kul, surrounded by high rocky ridges Ala-Too. Capped mountains, lit by the sun, like a white kalpak Kyrgyz people.

Authors: A.Abdraev, S.Dubanaev

Approved: January 14, 1994 Resolution of Parliament

Awards and honors

Awards of the Kyrgyz Republic. Gos. award of the Kyrgyz Republic is the highest form of encouraging citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic and the recognition of their contribution to the protection and strengthening of the state, democracy, national unity, increase economic, intellectual and spiritual potential, as well as the merits in the social, humanitarian, charitable and other activities to the state and the people.

Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On state awards of the Kyrgyz Republic" was adopted by the Legislative Assembly Parliament of the Kyrgyz Republic June 26, 1996 and approved by the Presidential Decree of 10 July 1996.

State. winning the Kyrgyz Republic are the highest degree of difference of the Kyrgyz Republic "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Baatyr", orders, medals, honors, Diploma of the Kyrgyz Republic. Names of state. Awards are established in the state. language. President of the Kyrgyz Republic shall issue a decree on awarding state and hands. awards. Decrees of the President shall be published in the media. For a full and fair consideration to the representations of state. awards, as well as for their social evaluation, the President, the Commission on the state. awards to the President. Samples marks, order books and certificates to the state. awards, and the order of presentation, delivery, carrying, keeping and storage are found in the Regulation "On State Awards of the Kyrgyz Republic." State. prizes may be awarded to foreign citizens and persons without citizenship who have services to the Kyrgyz Republic.

Persons who have won state. awards, enjoy the benefits and advantages of the procedure and in the cases provided for by the legislation of the Kyrgyz Republic.

Maintain the status, rights and privileges to citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic, previously awarded orders and medals of the USSR and the Kirghiz SSR, re-identification is made honorary title "Hero of the Soviet Union" and "Hero of Socialist Labor" with the highest degree of deviation of the Kyrgyz Republic.

The highest degree of distinction "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Baatyr." Highest decoration of the Kyrgyz Republic "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Baatyr" is given by the President of the Kyrgyz Republic 1 time citizens for exceptional personal service to the state and the people, for the commission of the heroic exploits in the name of freedom and independence of the Kyrgyz Republic. The person awarded with the highest degree of difference "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Baatyr" awarded special sign "Ak Shumkar." Special sign "Ak Shumkar" is worn on the left breast of the orders and medals of the Kyrgyz Republic. The first awards were awarded to: Tugelbay Sydykbekov (writer), Genghis Aitmatov Torokulovich (writer), Turgunbai Sadykov (sculptor), Salizhan Sharipov (astronaut), Turdakun Usubaliev (public figure), Sabir Kumushalieva (actress).

Order "Manas." Order "Manas" is awarded to individuals for outstanding contributions to the protection and strengthening of the state and a democratic society, the unity of the people, increase the economic, spiritual and intellectual potential. Order the "Manas" has 3 degrees, awards begins with III degree. In exceptional circumstances, the President may award the Citizens 1 degree. Order is worn on the left breast to other orders and medals of the Kyrgyz Republic.

Order "Danaker." Awarded to citizens for their contribution to promoting peace, friendship and   Cooperation between nations, for a particularly fruitful activity in the international accord, rapprochement and mutual enrichment of national cultures, achievements in science. Worn on the left side of the chest after the Order of "Manas".

Order "Baatyr ene." Order "Baatyr ene" is awarded to mothers with and fully cared for 10 or more children, mothers, children to-ryh awarded the highest degree of difference "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Baatyr." Order is worn on the left breast of the Kyrgyz Republic to the medals.

Medal "Erdik." Awarded to citizens for heroic action, courage and bravery shown during the rescue of people, protection of public order, in the fight against crime in times of natural disasters, fires, accidents and other emergencies, and for the courage and determination committed in the performance of the military, civil service and duty, in circumstances involving a risk to life. Worn on the left side of the chest after the orders of the Kyrgyz Republic.

"Dank" medal. Awarded to citizens for outstanding achievements in the state. office, industrial, scientific, technical, artistic, educational, social and charitable activities. Worn on the left side of the chest after the medal "Erdik."

Medal "Kuzhurmon kyzmat otogondugu uchun."

Awarded Defence Ministry of the Kyrgyz Republic, the National Guard, military and qualified staff of the National Security of the Kyrgyz Republic, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Environment and Emergency, service state. security, military prosecutors and military courts for the faithful performance of his duties, excellent performance in combat and political training. Has two degrees: I degree - to be awarded for more than 20 years of faithful military service, II degree - to be awarded for 15 or more years of faithful military service. Worn on the left side of the chest after the medal "Dunk."

Medal "Ene Danko." Awarded: mothers who have given birth to and raised nine children, women, worked flawlessly for over 15 years in educational institutions for orphans and children with disabilities, women, actively worked for charitable foundations and institutions that have made ​​a significant contribution the protection of motherhood and childhood, and having total length of service for more than 20 years. Worn on the left breast.

State Prize of the Kyrgyz Republic of the Toktogul in literature, art and architecture. Award is given one time in 2 years the authors of outstanding works in   literature, art and architecture.

State Prize of the Kyrgyz Republic in the field of science and technology. Awarded 7 awards 1 every 2 years for a major contribution to the development of science and research, development and implementation of high technologies, etc. (Honorary years) to the Independence Day of the Kyrgyz Republic. One of the prizes named Kasim Tynystanov. When is discussed for outstanding works in the field of linguistics and literary criticism. Another prize is awarded for outstanding works in the field of science and   equipment, textbooks published in the state. language.

Awarded following annual awards of the Kyrgyz Republic:
Prize of the Kyrgyz Republic for quality;
Prize of the Kyrgyz Republic for the farmers, farms and agricultural cooperatives;
Award for journalists - "Golden Pen";
Award of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic for the youth. 50 prizes awarded to the President of the creative talent of young people, who took 1st, 2nd and 3rd places at national and international competitions:
100 scholarships designed to help artists, professionals, scientists, culture and art;
100 scholarships for veterans work - outstanding figures of culture, art and science of the Kyrgyz Republic.

Honorary titles of the Kyrgyz Republic.

Honorary titles awarded to citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic for labor achievements, professional excellence and many years of hard work. Re the same person Honours Diploma not awarded. Honorary titles badges are worn on the right breast.

Established the following Honours:
People's Writer of the Kyrgyz Republic;
People's Poet of the Kyrgyz Republic;
People's Artist of the Kyrgyz Republic;
People's Artist of the Kyrgyz Republic;
National Teacher of the Kyrgyz Republic;
Honored teacher of the Kyrgyz Republic;
Distinguished Educator of the Kyrgyz Republic, Honorary Doctor of the Kyrgyz Republic;
Honored Worker of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic;
Honored Worker of Culture of the Kyrgyz Republic, Honored Worker of Science of the Kyrgyz Republic, Honored Worker of Industry of the Kyrgyz Republic;
Honored Worker of Agriculture of the Kyrgyz Republic;
Honored Builder of the Kyrgyz Republic;
Honored Worker of Transport of the Kyrgyz Republic, Honored Worker of Communications of the Kyrgyz Republic, Honored Worker of the Geological Survey of the Kyrgyz Republic;
Honored Worker of the public service of the Kyrgyz Republic;
Honored Lawyer Kyrggzskoy Republic;
Honored Economist of the Kyrgyz Republic of the public;
Honored Worker of Conservation of the Kyrgyz Republic.

Besides these, there are badges of ministries and departments. For example, "Excellence in Public Education of the Kyrgyz Republic of the public", "Excellence in Vocational Education of the Kyrgyz Republic", "Excellence in the Kyrgyz police", "Excellence in CTE," "Intermediate Kyrgyz customs" and other prize of the International Charity Fund "Meerim": "Kutman ene, "" Datca Ayim, "" Daanyshman "," Danaker "," Dilgir ", the international prize" Rukhaniyat "; literary prize of the Union of Writers of Kyrgyzstan: the A. Osmonov, Taras Moldova; Prize for artists - the M. Ryskulova , Prize: Kyrgyz state. nat. University - named Balasagyn, the Kyrgyz state. ped. University - the I. Ara-Baev, the newspaper "Kyrgyz Tuusu" - named Thelene Nasirdinova etc.

Holidays

NATIONAL HOLIDAYS

1 - New Year in January
7 - Orthodox Christmas in January
8 - January Orozo Ait
8 - International Women's Day in March
21 - March Nooruz
26 - March Kurman Ait
1 - Labour Day May
5 - May Constitution Day
9 - Victory Day in May
31 - Independence Day in August

PROFESSIONAL HOLIDAYS

Day of the housing and comm. services 3 Sunday in March
Geologist Day 1 Sunday April
Day of Statistics last Sunday of April Day of due May 7
Day of fisheries one Sunday in June
Day of Light Industry 2 Sunday of June Day of Water 3rd Sunday in June
Lawyer Day last Sunday in June
Day of the tax the employee on July 1
Medical Worker Day first Sunday of July
Day of the Service Employees 3rd Sunday in July
Day of forest 3rd Sunday in September
Machinist day last Sunday in September
Day of Social Protection and the trade unions on October 19 Day of Diplomatic Service October 24
Day of Culture on November 2
Day of agriculture one Saturday in November
Day of the defense organization last Sunday of November
Day of Broadcasting December 8
Day of the financial and economic employees December 10

 

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